DEN Stylebook

The Daily Eastern News Stylebook

The following entries constitute Daily Eastern News style. These entries are an effort to make clear and simple rules, permitting a few exceptions and some exclusions. Consistent style attests to the professionalism of the newspaper.
▪ If you cannot find what you are looking for, consult an Associated Press Stylebook or Webster’s dictionary (in that order).
▪ If you still are not sure, ask an editor. The editor in chief and news editor are responsible for keeping track of News style.
▪ Unless contradicted by a basic capitalization rule or a specific capitalization rule is given in the entry, use the following rule: capitalized entries should be capitalized; lowercased entries should not.
▪ Second reference in this book means all subsequent references in a story.

A
acronyms and abbreviations
As a rule, follow AP guidelines. If the group has a word such as club, council, society or association in its name, use that on second reference. Otherwise use either use their full name or a generic description such as the group on second reference.
▪ Acronyms are acceptable in headlines and subheads, but never in both. Only use the acronym in the headline if it is spelled out in the subhead, and vice-versa.
▪ Never put an acronym in parentheses after the spelled-out version. If the acronym is unclear, do not use it.

about
This is an imprecise word so don’t use it with other imprecise words. Wrong: McKinney estimated that about 200 people read the editorial.
▪ Never use the word estimated. News style is to use about instead.
▪ Never use about before exact dates or times. Wrong: about 10:31 a.m. Right: about 10:30 a.m.

academic degrees
Do not abbreviate. Use an apostrophe in bachelor’s degree, master’s degree, etc. Use doctorate, not Ph.D. David Reed earned his doctorate in August.

academic departments
Schools, non-academic departments lowercase names of academic departments unless they are proper names by themselves (i.e. languages). history department, but English department
▪ Capitalize the full names of administrative departments, lowercase descriptions or shortened versions. University Housing and Dining Services but housing and dining.
▪ Capitalize the names of schools and colleges. School of Business, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, the Graduate School.

academic honors
Eastern graduates are subject to this system—cum laude (with honor), GPA of 3.65 to 3.79; magna cum laude (with high honor), GPA 3.8 to 3.89; summa cum laude (with highest honor), GPA 3.9 to 4.0

academic titles
Capitalize and spell out titles only when they appear before a name; lowercase; lowercase when they appear after a name or without a name. Titles longer than three words always go after a name and are set off by commas. Titles of three words of fewer go in front of names. False titles such as coach, professor, member or student are not capitalized.
▪ Examples: Eastern President Lou Hencken, but Jeff Cooley, vice president for business affairs.

addresses
Identify all Charleston or Mattoon businesses with street addresses set off in commas immediately following the name. McHugh’s Double Drive Thru, 4 Lincoln Ave. Charleston residents follow the same rule, but Mattoon residents do not.
▪ Follow AP style on street abbreviations. With a numbered address Street becomes St., Avenue becomes Ave. and Boulevard becomes Blvd. They are spelled out without a number in the address. All others (road, circle, drive, etc.) are spelled out regardless.
▪ Example: 1613 Charleston Ave., but Charleston Avenue.
▪ In Charleston, avenues are named after former U.S. presidents and run east/west. Streets are named by number and run north/south.

adviser
Always spelled with an ‘e.’ It is never advisor, even if that is how the person refers to himself or how it appears on a directory or business card.

affect, effect
Affect is almost always a verb meaning to influence, it is only a noun in some academic psychology contexts. Effect is a verb meaning to cause or a noun meaning the result.

allege
Use this word with great caution. Some guidelines:
▪ Avoid any suggestion that the writer is making an allegation.
▪ Specify the source of an allegation. In a criminal case, it should be an arrest record, and indictment or the statement of a public official connected with the case.
▪ Use alleged bribe or a similar phrase when necessary to make it clear that an unproved action is being treated as fact. Be sure that the source of the charge is specified elsewhere in the story.
▪ IN correct usage, it is the crime that is alleged, not the person, so use robbery suspect rather than alleged robber.
▪ Never write accused robber because you are saying that the person is definitely a robber, just one that is being accused.
▪ Avoid saying alleged murder or similar constructions. If you know the inciden t happened, that is fact and doesn’t need the qualifier alleged.

African-American
AP Style says black. Use African-American only in quotations or the names of organizations or if individuals describe themselves so. Therefore, usually use black. Lowercase.

all right
This is the proper spelling; it is never alright.

a lot
Always two words. There is no such word as a lot.

already
This is the proper spelling; it is never all ready.

a.m., p.m.
Lowercase with periods. Always use only one digit for on-the-hour times: 4 p.m., never 4:00 p.m. This is true even in graphics or calendars. Don’t use 12 a.m. or 12 p.m., use midnight and noon.

Ameren Central Illinois Public Service Co.
Use on first reference. Use AmerenCIPS on second reference and in headlines. Do not use CIPS company.

among, between
Among compares three or more things; between compares just two.

annual
Nothing is annual until it gets to the third year. There is no such thing as a first annual or second annual event.

AP
Acceptable on second reference to The Associated Press.
▪ In stories written by News reporters, AP copy is incorporated with phrases such as according to The Associated Press reports. Never use a double byline such as by Kyle Mayhugh and The Associated Press.

Arcola-Tuscola Room
It should be referred to as the Arcola-Tuscola Room in the Martin Luther King Jr. University Union. Similar for other combined rooms, where meetings are often held.

attribution
The preferred verb is said. Anything else adds editorial slant to what is being said.
▪ Use stated only for references from written materials.
▪ Never use the word feels because it implies you as a writer know exactly what the source is feeling. Wrong: Larsen feels it is a good plan. Right: Larsen said he feels it is a god plan.
▪ Avoid according to unless you are quoting someone who is quoting someone else. According to Gisondi, Joe Torre said the Yankees are overrated.
▪ Pointed out refers to something overlooked.
▪ Warned refers to genuine danger.
▪ Charged refers to legal contexts.
▪ Assert refers to a strongly held belief.
▪ Admit means to yield reluctantly to an idea.
▪ Claim casts doubt on the assertion being made; avoid this at all costs.

B
ballroom
The University Ballroom is the older of the two ballrooms in the Union by the Ticket Office. refer to it as the University Ballroom on first reference; ballroom is acceptable on second reference. Never say Union Old Ballroom.
▪ The Grand Ballroom is above the bookstore.

band names
Capitalize without italics or quotation marks.

Board of Trustees
The governing body of Eastern, which is appointed by the governor. They meet roughly once a month. If there is nothing serious on the agenda, they will meet by conference call.
▪ Always explain that it is the governing body of Eastern, near the top of the story.
▪ Usually avoid BOT on second reference, use the board or the trustees. Use BOT if there is more than one board referred to in the story. BOT is acceptable in headlines.

body parts
A synecdoche is when a part is used to represent the whole. Do not use this when describing people. Wrong: Over 60 pairs of ears listened to the lecture. Just say people. It is simpler, less wordy and more accurate.

Booth Library
Never The Booth Library. Use the library on second reference.

boy, girl, man, women, lady, gentleman
All Eastern students are men and women, never boy or girl. Non-students are boys and girls if they are under 18. No one is a lady or a gentleman.

Buzzard Hall
Capitalize both words in this proper name.

bylaws
Do not hyphenate.

C
Campus Pond
Not Lantz Pond or Charleston Pond or that puddle in Lantz Field.

cannot
always one word, never two.

Carman Hall
See residence halls

century
As a rule, lowercase case. Example: 21st century.

chair
The head of a committee is always the chair, regardless of how the committee refers to that person. Never use chairman, chairwoman or chairperson.
▪ Capitalize before a name. Faculty Senate Chair Bud Fischer.
▪ If a committee has multiple chairs, refer to each as co-chair.

Charleston City Council
Capitalize on first reference. Use the council on second reference. Lowercase city council or council when used alone. Its members are council members. Not council members, councilmen or councilwomen.
▪ The council is made up of four elected members and the mayor. It is responsible for making all decisions regarding the town.
▪ Council members are elected to four-year terms, with two seats being voted on every two years.
▪ The advisory boards to the council are the following:
▪ Board of Zoning and Appeals
▪ Building Code Board of Appeals
▪ Coles County Airport Authority Board
▪ Corridor Review Committee
▪ Electrical Commission
▪ External Relations Committee
▪ Firemen’s Pension Fund, Board of Trustees
▪ Fire and Police Board
▪ Library Board
▪ Parks and Recreation Advisory Board
▪ Police Pension Board
▪ Tourism Advisory Board
▪ Tax Increment Finance (TIF) District Joint Review Board

Charleston Area Chamber of Commerce
Not Charleston Chamber of Commerce. Use Mattoon Association of Commerce for the Mattoon body.

city attorney
Responsible for the legal needs of the City of Charleston. Attends all city council meetings. Do not capitalize, even before a name.

city manager
The city of Charleston runs on a city manager system. This means the Charleston City Council hires a person to run the day-to-day operations of the city. Do not capitalize, even before a name.

classes
see courses

coach
Never capitalized. It is a job description, not technically a title.

coed
Use only to describe residence halls for both sexes. Never call a female student a coed.

college
Eastern is a university, not a college or school.

committee
Capitalize as part of an official committee name: Student Senate Academic Affairs Committee. Do not capitalize when using the word itself.
▪ Do not capitalize names of ad hoc or temporary committees such as presidential search committee or academic affairs committee.
▪ Many governing bodies on campus have official names for committees that are rarely used. In this case, use a lowercased description of the committee. The academic affairs committee voted to change its bylaws.

constitution
Capitalize references to the U.S Constitution with or without the U.S. modifier.
▪ Constitutions of states or other countries should be capitalized only if the name of the state or country precedes constitution: the Illinois Constitution, constitution of Illinois, state constitution.
▪ Lowercase in all other uses. Student Government constitution.

contractions
Do not use in news stories unless in a direct quote. Acceptable in columns or features.

controversial issue
Do not use; it is redundant. An issue is by definition controversial. There is no such thing as a noncontroversial issue.

Council on Academic Affairs
Deals with issues such as course requirements, names and numbers, as well as various other academic guidelines.
▪ Use the council on second reference unless more than one council is referred to in the story, in which case use CAA.
▪ CAA is also acceptable in headlines.

Council on University Planning and Budget
Not Budgeting. The council’s members come from students, faculty, staff and administration. It acts as an advisory group to the Board of Trustees, meeting monthly.
▪ Use the council on second reference unless more than one council is referred to in the story, in which case use CUPB.
▪ CUPB is also acceptable in headlines.

courses
Always write out department names; never use the three-letter abbreviations used by the university.
▪ Only capitalize course names when they are a language or when followed by a course number. He took a political science course and Journalism 2100 “Introduction to Journalism.”
▪ For honors courses, precede the course information with honors. He took Honors Journalism 4100 Communications Law.

courtesy titles
There is one instance in which courtesy titles should be used—in an obituary. With a married couple, on first reference refer to each by first and last name. Exception: in a feature story, it is permissible to call both by first names.

couple
When describing two items, you should always use with of. There is no such thing as a couple writers, but there is a couple of writers.

credit/no credit
Never say pass/fail. It no longer exists at Eastern. Also, always use a slash not a hyphen.

currently
This is almost always unnecessary. The verb is implies that you mean currently.

D
The Daily Eastern News
Capitalize the T when using the formal name in columns or editorials. In news stories, the ‘t’ is lowercased.
▪ Omit “the” when using Daily Eastern News as an adjective. Daily Eastern News reporter Kyle Mayhugh or when using a direct quote from a source.
▪ Do not use DEN.
▪ References to titled columns are set off with quotation marks, as in “From Left Field.”

dash, hyphen
A hyphen is a joiner; it is the skinny one. A dash indicates an abrupt change of thought in the middle of a sentence; it is about twice the length of a hyphen. See hyphen for more info.

day care, day-care
Only hyphenate when used as an adjective. I took my child to day care. But: I took my child to the day-care center.

dean
Capitalize when used as a formal title before a name. Dean Allen Lanham of Library Services. Lowercase if it is not in front of a proper name. The dean said…

diacretical marks
News style is to not use diacretical marks, even in names. These are little marks above letters that appear in other languages. They only appear in English when a word is borrowed from another language, such as the accents that sometimes appear above the e’s in resume. The reason for this is consistency. It would be too time consuming to find all the places where they should go, and it would be wrong to put them in some places and not others. The simplest, most consistent way to deal with them is to leave them out.

discuss
For meeting stories, try to avoid leads focused around the verb discussed. Try to come up with some sort of other angle. If the best you can do is discussed, do not list everything they will discuss in the lead. Pick only the most important thing, and list the rest later in the story.

dollars
Use $3, $3.15 and 50 cents. Do not use $3.00, $.50 or a cent sign. Consult the AP stylebook for further questions.

Dr.
Do not use Dr. before Eastern professors with doctoral degrees. The only time Dr. should be used in a story is if the person has a medical degree, and only if that fact is relevant to the story.

due to, because, since
Never use due to. Because denotes a specific cause-effect relationship, Since is acceptable in a casual sense when the first event logically led to the second event but was not the direct cause. Jeff went home, since night production was finished.

E
each other, one another
Each other refers to two people; one another refers to more than two.

Eastern Illinois University, EIU
Always refer to the school as Eastern, never Eastern Illinois University or EIU except in quoted material. Do not use Eastern in front of titles except for the university president or if there is a chance for confusion if referring to administrators from other schools in the same story. Eastern President Lou Hencken, but Provost Blair Lord. Wrong: Eastern Provost Blair Lord

e-mail
not email.

entitled, titled
These do not mean the same thing. Entitled means “a right to do or have something.” Things with a title are titled. Reporters are entitled to a byline. The book is titled “Wrigleyville.”

etc.
Never use in a list in a news story, unless in a direct quote.

F
Facilities Planning and Management
This is the proper name of the administrative (non-academic) department that manages the physical Eastern campus. Note that it is not Managing in the title.

Faculty Senate
Capitalize when using the whole name. On second reference, use only senate, uncapitalized. The Faculty Senate will meet at 2 p.m. Tuesday. The senate will discuss the issue.
▪ People on the senate are referred to as senate members, uncapitalized. Never use senators. Example: “The issue was brought up by senate member John Henry Pommier.”
▪ Designers: Use a story label instead of having to write Faculty Senate in a headline

faculty
see instructor

Family Weekend
Not Parents Weekend.

farther, further
Use farther to refer to an extension in time or degree. Use further to indicate an extension of thought.

feel
People do not feel unless they are physically feeling something or they are speaking about their emotions. Avoid the following: Frank said he feels his photography is good. Instead, say: Frank said he believes his photography is good.

fewer, less
Fewer refers to numbers, less applies to quantities. That beer has fewer calories and less taste.

Financial Aid Office
Refer to it as the Financial Aid Office, not the Office of Financial Aid. Note that there is no s at the end of Aid.
▪ The academics catalog contains a complete description of all aid available to eligible students.

fiscal year
Lowercase if using it as an adjective, but capitalize if using it as a noun. The fiscal year budget 2005 was set to be used in Fiscal Year 2005.

former
Do not put in front of a dead person’s title unless they left the title before they died.

fractions
Spell out amounts less than one. Two-thirds, one-half, three-fourths. For numbers larger than one, use decimals. 1.5, 2.6, 98.6. Sports has a different rule for this.

fraternity, sorority
Capitalize the proper names of Greek groups, but lowercase fraternity or sorority after the names. Alpha Gamma Delta sorority, Delta Tau Delta fraternity.
▪ Never refer to fraternities and sororities by their shortened, common names. Don’t use Tri-Delts for Delta Delta Delta. Headlines are an exception to this rule.
▪ Never refer to Greek organizations as frats.
▪ There are three governing bodies for fraternities and sororities. They are Interfraternity Council, Panhellenic Council and National Panhellenic Council. Check the current academic catalog for a listing of sororities and fraternities, and which governing council they belong too.
See Greek

full-time, full time
Hyphenate only when using it as an adjective. Betty works full time at her full-time job.

fundraising, fundraiser
Use one word, no hyphen in all forms. This is a recent change in AP style.

G
gay
May be used as an adjective meaning homosexual. Do not use as a noun meaning homosexual unless it is part of a formal group name or appears in a direct quote. Female homosexuals are lesbians.

girl
see boy, girl, man, women, lady, gentleman

governor
Capitalize and abbreviate before a full name in regular text. Spell out and capitalize when used in a quote. Lowercase and spell out in all other uses. Gov. Rod Blagojevich, the governor, “I think Governor Blagojevich is an idiot,” he said.

GPA
Acceptable in all references to grade-point average. Spell out, uncapitalized, only in quotes.

grades
Capitalize without quotation marks. Use an apostrophe to show plural grades. One student received an A on Reed’s class, but nine received B’s.

Greek
Always capitalized in all references, whether referring to the fraternity/sorority system or to the country.
▪ Use full name of fraternities and sororities on first reference. The proper second reference is listed in parentheses.
Sororities
▪ Alpha Sigma Alpha (ASA)
▪ Alpha Sigma Tau (AST)
▪ Alpha Phi (Alpha Phi)
▪ Sigma Kappa (Sigma Kappa)
▪ Kappa Delta (Kappa Delta)
▪ Sigma Sigma Sigma (Tri-Sigma)
▪ Delta Zeta (Delta Zeta)
▪ Alpha Gamma Delta (Alpha Gam)
▪ Delta Delta Delta (Tri-Delta)
Fraternities
▪ Sigma Phi Epsilon (Sig Ep)
▪ Sigma Pi (Sigma Pi)
▪ Sigma Chi (Sigma Chi)
▪ Sigma Nu (Sigma Nu)
▪ Delta Sigma Phi (Delta Sig)
▪ Lambda Chi Alpha (Lambda Chi)
▪ Delta Tau Delta (Delts)
▪ Phi Kappa Theta (Phi Kap)
▪ Pi Kappa Alpha (Pikes)

H
Health Service
Not Health Services. This is a very common mistake. Refer to it as Eastern’s Health Service on first reference, Health Service on second reference.

hike
A perfectly acceptable synonym for increase. Example: The Board of Trustees voted to hike tuition by 7 percent. This is different from AP style.

his, her
Never use his/her or his or her. Do not presume maleness in a story, but use a masculine pronoun to refer to a word that may be either male or female. A reporter attempts to protect his sources. When possible, rewrite in plural. Reporters attempt to protect their sources.

Homecoming Game
Capitalize.

hyphen
Hyphens are joiners. Use them to join multiple-word modifiers: run-off election, first-quarter touchdown, a know-it-all attitude.
▪ Adjectives ending in ly do not need a hyphen.
▪ Hyphens are unnecessary for two words that are commonly seen as one concept. Orange juice, high school, public safety.
▪ Watch for nuances in meaning. There is an amusing difference between high-school age children and high school-age children. Similarly, note the difference between anti-child-abuse centers and anti-child abuse centers.
▪ See also dash, hyphen

identification
Same rules apply in stories and cutlines. Students should be identified after their name with year and major and an article (a or an). Example: Kyle Mayhugh, a senior journalism major. Wrong: Kyle Mayhugh, senior journalism major.
▪ Neither year in school nor major should be capitalized unless it begins the sentence, or the major is a proper noun (usually languages).
▪ See instructor for identifying faculty members.
▪ Administrators and staff should be identified by their title before the name for three-word or fewer titles, after the name for four-or-more-word titles.
▪ In all cases, identify sources by the most necessary information. In a story about the student body president, refer to him as such and not by year and major. The same goes for faculty members who are on Faculty Senate or other organizations, if their membership is relevant to the story.
▪ Despite any debate, it is News policy not to identify a sexual assault victim by name. Use an Eastern freshman, etc.

I
incumbent
Not incumbant. Usually is used redundantly, but incumbent is acceptable when it supplies emphasis. It was the first time an incumbent president had a primary in his home state. Don’t use along with the title; that makes it redundant. Wrong: Incumbent Gov. Rod Blagojevich.

instructor
People who teach classes at Eastern are called faculty, not teachers, when referred to as a group. Faculty members is usually unnecessary, but use if it works better within the sentence.
▪ Eastern faculty can have four different titles. From lowest to highest rank, they are instructor, assistant professor, associate professor and professor.
▪ Always ask interview subjects what their titles are. Do not assume it is professor. If you do not have the information, use the title listed in the most recent campus directory.
▪ None of these titles are technically titles; they are job descriptions. They are always uncapitalized.
▪ On first reference, use the faculty member’s department, title and name. If the department and title combined would be three words or fewer, put them before the name. Otherwise, put it after the name surrounded by commas. Department always comes before the title.
▪ Examples: English professor David Carpenter, but Denise Reid, associate professor of early childhood, elementary and middle level education.

intensifiers
Try to avoid intensifiers like very, a lot, more, really, many, few, etc. They are imprecise when more exact quantities and words could be used.

Interfraternity Council
That is the proper spelling.

intramural
no hyphen

introductory clauses and phrases
They are always followed by a comma.
▪ If you do not follow correct style, you will be beaten severely.
▪ Once you get used to it, correct style is easy to follow.
▪ Do not use introductory clauses or phrases in leads. Simply write around it, preferably putting it at the end.

italics
Italicize newspaper and magazine names. Ex., Daily Eastern News, New York Times, Sports Illustrated. This also includes any shorter secondary name references to those publications.

its, it’s
Without the apostrophe ‘it’ is possessive. With the apostrophe this means ‘it is.’

it, their
Groups and committees are referred to as it, but the members of the committee or group as they.
▪ The senate voted to change its bylaws. Eastern Illinois won its fourth straight game.
▪ The senate members voted to change their schedules. The Panthers won their fourth straight game.

J
junior, senior
When referring to a parent and child with the same name, capitalize, abbreviate and do not set off by commas. Lair B. Murdock Jr. Use a roman numeral for second or third with names. Michael T. Reed III.

K

L
lady
see boy, girl, man, women, lady, gentleman

Lantz Building, Lantz Field House, Lantz Arena
This is what they are called, use these only.

like, such as
Like means not including the thing being compared; such as means including the thing being compared. You are not a person like you, but you are a person such as you.

Livingston C. Lord Administration Building
Do not use. The proper name of the main administrative building (the castle on Lincoln Avenue). It is more commonly known as Old Main, which should be used in all references.

Lumpkin College of Business
Do not use. It is the proper name of Eastern’s College of Business. Use College of Business on first reference, and the college on second reference. If more than one college appears in the story, use business college, uncapitalized, on second reference.

M
man
see boy, girl, man, women, lady, gentleman

Martin Luther King Jr. University Union
Note the period after Jr. Always use this full name on first reference, and the union on second reference. Never use MLK or student union as part of the name.

McAfee Gym
Houses Registration. Capitalize on first, formal reference. McAfee is acceptable on second reference.

midnight
Use midnight, never 12 a.m. This is true even in calendars or graphics.

mph
No periods, acceptable in all references.

midterm
Not mid-term.

‘Minority Today’
Eastern’s publication, focusing on minority students. Published intermittently by Student Publication, several times a semester. Italicize in all references.

more than
Use more than with numbers. Never use over when you really mean more than. Over relates to physical position, more than refers to numbers and amounts.

Mount
Always abbreviate to Mt. in proper names. Or always ask before doing so with a member of the opposite sex and/or gender.

N
names
Use first and last names on first references. The U.S. President can be referred to on first reference as President Bush.
▪ There is no good excuse for a misspelled name in a story. Even if their name is John Smith, ask the person or look it up. It may be Jon Smith or John Smyth.

Newspaper names
Names of newspapers are put in italics.

numerals
Unnecessary problems here. Whenever in doubt, just take the time to check the AP Stylebook.
▪ Spell out numbers one through nine, except in the following: ages, dates, measurements, political divisions such as precincts or districts, sports results, street addresses, temperatures, time of day, units of money or votes.
▪ Use numerals for numbers 10 or larger.
▪ A number with four or more digits needs commas: 1,294. Exceptions are radio call numbers, years and street addresses.
▪ Spell out numbers at the beginning of a sentence, except for years.
▪ See AP for more.

O
off-campus, off campus
Use off-campus as an adjective. Otherwise, do not hyphenate. Off-campus students live off campus.

Ohio Valley Conference
Use OVC on second reference. Member schools are Eastern Kentucky, Morehead State, Eastern, Tennessee Tech, Murray State, Austin Peay, Tennessee Martin, Southeast Missouri State, Samford and Jacksonville State.

okay, OK, OK’d, OK’ing, OKs
Avoid in stories, use OK and its variations in headlines. If you must use it in a story, write it as okay.

P
Panhellenic Council
Not PanHellenic Council or Pan-Hellenic Council

Panther Card
Capitalize in all references; this is the proper name of the card.

parentheses
Avoid these whenever possible. Most commonly used to insert words into a direct quote. If you use these, be absolutely sure that the added words improve the reader’s understanding of the quote. Do not replace the words in the quote. Leave them and put the parenthetical information after them.
▪ Right: “I thought it (the plan) was a good idea,” he said.
▪ Wrong: “I thought (the plan) was a good idea,” he said.
▪ Do not use parentheses to coin an acronym after the name of a group. If the acronym isn’t clear, don’t use it.

part-time, part time
see Style#full-time, full time. The same principal applies.

pass-fail
policy See Style#credit/no credit

PAWS
This stands for Panther Access to Web Services. Can use PAWS in first reference.

people, persons
Use people when speaking of a large or uncounted number of individuals. Thousands of people attended the meeting. Some rich people pay no taxes. What will people say? Do not use persons in this sense.
▪ Persons is usually used for a relatively number of people who can be counted, but people should be substituted.
▪ People is a collective noun that requires a plural verb and is used to refer to a single race or nation. The American people are united. In this sense, the plural form is peoples. The peoples of Africa speak many languages.

percent
One word, never a symbol. Always used with a numeral. 1 percent, 25 percent.
▪ Do not use a hyphen when the numeral and the word percent create a compound modifier. 15 percent increase, not 15-percent increase.

police department
Capitalize only when using the formal name: Charleston Police Department.
▪ The head of the department is the chief of police. Capitalize and do not abbreviate before a name. do not abbreviate if the title is placed after the person’s name.
▪ There is also an assistant chief of police. This should always go after a name, uncapitalized.
▪ Most officers should be referred to as patrol officers. Do not abbreviate or capitalize before a name.
▪ Other titles, all uncapitalized, include detective, detective lieutenant and detective sergeant. Always check with the person interviewed for which applies to them. Do not capitalize any of them, even before a name.

Positively 4th Street Records
Not Fourth, despite normal AP style for streets and because we wouldn’t want to misrepresent the song reference.

pounds
Always spell out. Never abbreviate to ‘lb.’

prefixes
Check AP stylebook entry for guidelines on when to hyphenate.

punctuation in proper names
Normally, do not use punctuation as part of a proper name except for the name of a person. The same goes for unusual capitalization in the middle of words. The abandoned building on Lincoln Avenue may have a sign that says How Ya’ll Are?, but in print it is How Ya’ll Are.

public works
Only capitalize when using the formal name: Charleston Public Works Department. Its top official is the director of public works, always after the name and uncapitalized.

Q
quad
Acceptable in all references to the three quadrangles on campus. Lowercase when used alone. Capitalized when used as part of the name. North Quad (between Old Main and the Student Services Building), South Quad, Library Quad (never Booth Library Quad).

quotation marks
Close quotes at the end of each paragraph even if the next paragraph begins with a quotation mark. However, News style permits dropping of the closing quotation mark if the next paragraph is a quote from the same person.
▪ Larry Smith said, “The time I spend with night production can be a great learning opportunity.”
“But I have some reservations about it—like never having enough cigarettes or change for the Pepsi machine.”
▪ Despite the example above, attribution should usually go at the end of the sentence.
▪ Place ALL periods and commas inside ALL quotation marks, regardless of the reason they are there.
▪ Other punctuation goes inside quotation mark if it relates to the quote, otherwise place it outside the quotation mark

R
radio stations
No frequency numbers are needed. Refer to WEIU as campus radio station WEIU on first reference.

Radio & TV Center
Use TV in all references—don’t spell out TV. Do not use a slash or a hyphen. Note that Radio & (or and) TV Center Director oversees the whole program administratively, while the WEIU-FM Radio Faculty Adviser oversees the radio station only and those students involved.

re-elect
Note the hyphen.

residence halls
Never refer to them as dormitories or dorms. A complete listing of residence halls of campus follows:
Women – Andrews Hall, Lawson Hall, Lincoln Hall, Pemberton Hall
Men – Douglas Hall, Thomas Hall
Co-educational – Carman Hall, Ford Hall, McKinney Hall, Stevenson Tower, Taylor Hall ,Weller Hall

resident assistant
RA is acceptable on second reference. Do not use as an official title. Plural is RAs—no apostrophe.

roommate
one word, two m’s

room numbers
Use the building name and capitalize Room. Example: Coleman Hall Room 2150.

RSO
In first reference, use Registered Student Organization. In all others, may use RSO. Plural is RSOs. Do not use ‘recognized’ since this goes against the Student Life Office’s official designation.

rush
always lowercase. Including spring rush, sorority rush. See also Style#Greek Appendix

S
Saint
always abbreviate to St. in proper names.

school names
Capitalize the names of Eastern’s college and school on all references.
▪ Lumpkin College of Sciences
▪ Graduate School
▪ Lumpkin College of Business and Applied Sciences
▪ College of Education and Professional Studies
▪ College of Arts and Humanities
▪ College of Family and Consumer Sciences
▪ School of Technology

scores
Use figures, do not set off by commas: Eastern beat Western 14-3. Use a hyphen (the short one) not a dash (the long one). Use commas only in this form: Eastern 14, Western 3.

season records
Put in parentheses after the team name: Eastern (12-8) defeated Western.

semesters
Capitalize the month when it goes with a year to describe a semester. Do not capitalize if there is no year. Fall 2004 semester, but fall semester. Capitalize with a year even if the word semester is only implied by the sentence. His best grades came in Spring 2004.

Senior Night
Capitalize.

7th Street Underground
The official name of the basement of the Union, the former Rathskeller.

song titles
Place in quotation marks, do not italicize. Ex., Barry Manilow sang “Mandy” to a rapt student body Friday night.

SONOR
The student advertising group. All caps. Use the acronym always, with an explanation on first reference.

sorority
see fraternity, sorority, Greeks.

spring break
No breaks are capitalized. For example: fall break.

states
Simply spell out the name when used alone in a sentence. When used with a city, abbreviate using AP style. Do not use the state for cities in Illinois, unless it is necessary to distinguish them from cities elsewhere with the same name, i.e. Paris, Ill. Do not use postal abbreviations. See AP for more.

state’s attorney
Capitalize when used as a title. State’s Attorney Steve Ferguson, the state’s attorney’s office. Note the apostrophes.

streets
With a street number, abbreviate Ave., Blvd., and St. Even with street numbers, all other designations are spelled out. See AP and addresses.

Student Government
Capitalize when referring specifically to Eastern’s student government. Use this when referring to both the Student Senate and its executive officers collectively. The executive board includes (these are their exact titles):
▪ Student Body President (goes before name)
▪ student executive vice president (after name)
▪ student vice president for student affairs (after name)
▪ student vice president for business affairs
▪ student vice president for academic affairs
▪ Note that all of them are vice president for, not vice president of. There is an important difference.

Student Senate
Capitalize only when using both words. When used alone, senate is lowercased. Use “the Student Senate” on first reference and “the senate” on subsequent references, unless Faculty Senate or another senate appears in the same story. In columns and letters to the editor, put quotation marks around nicknames for the senate.
▪ Always put “the” before Student Senate when it is used as a noun, just like any other noun.
▪ The leader of the senate is the “Student Senate Speaker,” not the “Student Speaker” or “Speaker of the Student Senate.”
▪ The Student Senate has no power to pass laws, so their work cannot be called “legislation” or “bills.” Their works are “proposals” or “resolutions.”

Student Senate committees
Student Senate committee names are capitalized only if Student Senate precedes the committee name. Lowercase if the committee name is used alone: Student Senate Academic Affairs Committee, but student academic affairs committee.
The committees are:
▪ Academic Affairs committee
▪ Diversity Affairs committee
▪ External Relations committee
▪ Housing committee
▪ Faculty Senate committee
▪ Internal Affairs committee
▪ Shuttle Bus committee
▪ Student Relations committee
▪ Tuition and Fee Review
▪ University Development and Recycling

such as
see like

supervisor
Never spelled with more than one e

T
television, TV
TV is acceptable as an adjective or in direct quotes. Otherwise, write out television when used as a noun. Note the exception to this rule with Radio & TV Center.

10
Is just that—10. Spell out numbers one to nine, but spell out numbers after 10 (see “numerals” or “time” or AP stylebook for exceptions to this rule.

that
Avoid using that after said unless you wish to indicate time. For example, if a source said something in 1982, write: Dr. X said in 1982 there were six cases of smallpox on campus. But, if the source is referring to something that happened in 1982, write: Dr. X said that in 1982 there were six smallpox cases on campus.

theatre, theater
Eastern’s department is called Theatre Arts; note the spelling.
▪ Use theater everywhere else, unless theatre is part of a proper name.
▪ When you are describing, not naming, the department, use theater. Example: The theatre arts professor teaches theater.

time
On first reference, amounts of time should be written as numerals and words, no colon. 3 minutes and 29 seconds, not 3:29. Numerals with a colon is used on second reference.

time element
Use time, date and place in that order. The meting is at 2 p.m. Tuesday in Room 4440 of Booth Library. Also, do not use on unless it breaks up two proper names.
▪ The meeting will be 2 p.m. Tuesday.
▪ The Charleston City Council on Tuesday voted to raise bar entry age to 32.

today, tomorrow, tonight, yesterday
Use today to refer to the day of publication, usually the day after the story is written. Ex., “The Jazz Ensemble will perform tonight at 7.” [notice that p.m. is not used when night is inserted into the sentence.]
• Use the day of the week to refer to days within one week before or after the day of publication. Otherwise, use the date. Only use the year if there is possibility for confusion.
▪ Do not use yesterday or tomorrow.
▪ Do not use tonight, it is unnecessary as you should be giving the time.

transfer, transferred, transferring
Note the spelling.

transitional expressions
Transitional words do have specific meaning, so select the most precise choice
▪ Addition—moreover, further, furthermore, besides, and, and then, likewise, also, nor, too, again, in addition, equally important, next, first, second, third, finally, last.
▪ Comparison—similarly, likewise
▪ Contrast—but, yet, however, still, nevertheless, on the other hand, on the contrary, even so, notwithstanding, for all that, in contrast, at the same time, otherwise, although this may be true, instead.
▪ Place—here, beyond, nearby, opposite to, adjacent to, on the opposite side.
▪ Purpose—to this end, for this purpose.
▪ Result—hence, therefore, accordingly, consequently, thus, thereupon, as a result, then.
▪ Summary, intensification—in brief, on the whole, in sum, in short, in other words, that is, to be sure, as has been noted, for example, for instance, in fact, indeed, in any event
▪ Time—meanwhile, at length, soon, afterward, later, now, in the past

U
United States
Spell out when used as a noun. Use U.S. as an adjective. This is an exception to (recently changed) AP style. The United States is the sole source of U.S. exports.

University Food Court
The official name of the food court in the Union. Food Court is acceptable on second reference.

University Housing and Dining Services
Spell out in first reference.
• For lengthy titles like this, cite after the person’s name. Example: “I love Mark Hudson,
director of University Housing & Dining Services.” Note the lower-cased director’s title
when used after the person’s name.

University Union
See Martin Luther King Jr. University Union

V
Vehicle
Eastern’s literary magazine, published once each fall and spring semester. Italicize on all references.

vice president
Never hyphenate. Titles for Eastern’s four vice presidents should follow their names.
▪ Never hyphenate
▪ Notice they are vice president for, not vice president of. There is an important difference. A vice president for business affairs is vice president of the college, in charge of the business affairs department. A vice president of business affairs is the second-highest official in the business affairs office.
▪ Current officials are
▪ Blair Lord, provost and vice president for academic affairs
▪ Jeff Cooley, vice president for business affairs
▪ Dan Nadler, vice president for student affairs
▪ Jill Nilsen, vice president for external relations

W
Warbler
Eastern’s yearbook. Italicize in all references.

woman
see Style#boy, girl, man, women, lady, gentleman

Women’s Studies Council
No abbreviation is acceptable, this group is not known widely enough for abbreviation to be easily recognizable.

X
X-rated, X-ray
Always uppercase “X”. Always use with a hyphen. This is true of all letter-based words. email is the only exception, which is started out as E-mail but has fallen to popular usage.

Y

Z

Sports Style Guide
If you can’t find what you’re looking for here, check the main style page or check the AP Stylebook.

Academic Progress Reports
▪ Spell out on first reference.
▪ APR on second reference.
▪ The NCAA policy on calculating every school’s academic rating.

athletic department
Do not capitalized.
▪ Rich McDuffie is not a doctor and he is the director of athletics.
▪ Dave Kidwell is Eastern’s sports information director.
▪ Ben Turner and Bart Rettberg are assistant sports information directors.
▪ Betty Ralston is Eastern’s academic compliance director.

Awards
These are always capitalized, not put in quotations.
Ex: Ohio Valley Conference Player of the Year • The Heisman Trophy is awarded to the best I-A college football player. • The Walter Payton Award is awarded to the best I-AA college football player. • The Buck Buchanan Award is awarded to the best I-AA defensive player. • The Eddie Robinson Award is awarded to the best I-AA coach.

cliches
▪ Sports writing is absolutely full of cliches. Avoid them like the plague. In other words, avoid them as much as possible. Say things in a simpler, more direct manner. (The Elements of Style is an exceptional book for writing more concisely and precisely.)

Coaching staff
Head coach is not to be used, coach is sufficient. • The assistant coaches will be referred by the position they coach.
EX: offensive coordinator John Doe and defensive line coach Steve Jones. • A coach is not fired if his contract is not renewed, dismissed is the proper term. However, if a coach’s terminated while on an existing contract, fired is the proper term. • If a coach signs a new contract, he re-signs. If he quits while on an existing contract, he resigns or resigned.

Conference
• Capitalize when used as part of a proper name. Example: Ohio Valley Conference or the Big Ten Conference.
• Lower-case when conference refers to more than one conference. Example: He coached in the Big East and Ohio Valley conferences.
• Use lower-case conference when used in all other references. Example: He was the best lineman or sprinter in the conference.

conference affiliation
▪ Eastern is a member of the Ohio Valley Conference in all sports except for men’s soccer, which plays in the Missouri Valley Conference.
▪ Use OVC and MVC on second reference.

conference record
▪ Do not put conference record alongside the complete record in a story unless it is a conference game.

director of athletics
Not athletic director.

doubleheader
Always one word. Do not use the clichéd ‘twinbill.’

Depth Chart
when describing how a player fits on the depth chart use a hyphen. EX: first-string quarterback (rare instance you don’t use number).

Division of play
Eastern competes in Division I-AA (use the roman numeral not 1-AA). This is the only sport Eastern does not compete in Division I play.

Double play
Two words on all references. Do not use the clichéd ‘twin killing.’

free agent
Is lower-cased. Hyphenate when used as compound adjective. Example: The free-agent shortstop spoke with the Cardinals.”

game one, game two
▪ There is no Game One or Game Two outside of a direct playoff series.
▪ A regular season series or doubleheader has a first game and a second game.

Halftime
lowercase unless using it as a proper noun. EX: Super Bowl Halftime Show

innings pitched
▪ Do not use ‘.1,’ ‘.2’ to represent fractions of an inning pitched. Use fractions. Ex., “Matt Meinheit pitched 2 2/3 innings of shutout relief.”

Instant Replay
Two conferences that use an instant replay system –– the Southeastern and Big Ten conferences. • Unlike the NFL, they do not allow the coach to challenge, it is all handled in the replay booth.

mascot
▪ Prowler is the name of our current mascot; Billy the Panther was the former name of our mascot.

Matchup
One word, can be used to describe a game.

National Football League
Can be referred as NFL on first reference but team names must be spelled out on first reference.
• NFL Draft is capitalized
• Super Bowl is capitalized
• NFL Playoffs is capitalized
• General manager and scout is lowercased

National Signing Day
in early February. • A verbal commitment is done before National Signing Day and can be broken without consequences. • It is not illegal for players to be recruited after giving a verbal commitment, it is illegal for them to be recruited AFTER they sign with a school. That is considered tampering by the NCAA. • When a player signs a National Letter of Intent, that is a contract that only the school can let him out of.

NCAA
National Collegiate Athletic Association, the governing body for intercollegiate sports. The acronym is acceptable on first reference.

numbers
do not spell out the number at 10 or above or when using stats. Always use the numeric form when describing stats. However, spell it out when stating facts.
▪ FACT: three games back of first, five wins in a row.
▪ STAT: 4 RBIs, 7 points, 5 goals.

Ohio Valley Conference
▪ Spell out in first reference. Use OVC on second reference.
▪ Member schools are Eastern Kentucky, Morehead State, Eastern, Tennessee Tech, Murray State, Austin Peay, Tennessee Martin, Southeast Missouri State, Samford and Jacksonville State.
See conference

Penalties
• referees call penalties in a football game not officials. The referee in the white hat is the head referee not chief or director.

Players
• in Division I-AA football, there shall be a limit of 90 student-athletes in practice and game activities prior to the first day of classes or the first game.

Plays
• offensive and defensive formations, philosophies and plays are to be lowercased. EX: west coast offense, prevent defense, draw play. • A draw play is only acceptable for when the quarterback moves back as if to pass and then hands the ball to a running back who is running up the middle toward the line of scrimmage. • A screen pass is only acceptable for a short pass near the line of scrimmage to a back or receiver who has blockers in front of him. • The quarterback is only in shotgun when he is 3 to 5 yards behind the center and not directly behind him.

Playoffs
In college football, they are referred to as the Division I-AA Playoffs not as a Tournament. Uppercase when in using title of post season. EX: Division I-AA Playoffs. • A 16-team playoff that consists of 8 conference champions and 8 at-large bids. • Top 4 teams are the only teams seeded • Top 8 teams get to host first round games. • The next round home team is determined by the facility not seed of the school. • Semifinal and Championship games are played in Chattanooga, Tennessee (neutral site)

Positions
lowercase. EX: quarterback, linebacker etc. • Specific positions should be used whenever possible except for wide receivers. EX: cornerback and safety not defensive back. EX: wide receiver instead of flanker or split end. • Offensive and defensive is required before the guard and tackle positions in order to avoid confusion.

Preseason Practice
can be called spring practice or summer workouts. • During the preseason practice period, institutions may have no more than 29 on-field practice sessions. • Only 12 of the practice sessions may involve contact, and such contact shall not occur prior to the third practice session. • Of the 12 permissible contact sessions, eight sessions may involve tackling, and no more than three of the eight tackling sessions may be devoted primarily (greater than 50 percent of practice time) to 11-on-11 scrimmages. • If an institution conducts a spring game, the game shall be counted as one of the three sessions that can be devoted primarily to 11-on-11 scrimmages.

Recruiting
• when describing a recruit, the position and then the first and last name is to be written out along with the hometown and high school in parenthesis. EX: RB D.J. Walker (Mattoon/Mattoon H.S.)

School name and nickname
Eastern’s teams are nicknamed Panthers.
▪ The nickname of Eastern is the Panthers for both genders. Never use Lady Panthers.
▪ EIU is acceptable on second reference.

Sports Information Office
name of the office.
▪ SID office for second reference.

Stadiums
O’Brien Stadium is the field Eastern plays its home games. • A capacity or sell out crowd at O’Brien Stadium is no less than an attendance of 10,000 fans. • The surface of play at O’Brien Stadium is called field turf (not pro-grass or artifical grass). • O’Brien Stadium does not have a specific student section. • On the road, refer to the name of the stadium only. Do not include the name of the field. EX: do not use Monier Field at KSU Stadium, simply use KSU Stadium.

Television Timeouts
Can be referred to as TV timeouts on first reference. • College football games do not have TV timeouts unless they are being nationally broadcasted on ABC, ESPN, CBS, Fox SportsNet. • WEIU broadcasts of EIU home games is not included and therefore, do not have TV timeouts.

Transfers
• a player transferring from a I-A school to a I-AA (Eastern), he does not have to sit out a year.
Two-minute warning
• does not existence in college football. • Only exists in the NFL

Yard markers
• When describing a play while using the yardage involved, a hyphen is required. EX: 25-yard field goal. 30-yard pass and 20-yard touchdown run. • Midfield is only an acceptable substitute for the 50-yard line.

Last revised 12/10/2006 (jg)

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